A Crypto Currency is a digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography on the blockchain for security.
Bitcoin Mining is the process of adding transaction records to Bitcoin’s public ledger of past transactions on the Blockchain, which confirms transactions to the rest of the network as having taken place. Bitcoin nodes use the Blockchain to distinguish legitimate Bitcoin transactions from attempts to re-spend coins that have already been spent elsewhere (eliminating the problem of Double Spending).
A Wallet is an online or offline service for holding and using your Crypto Currency.
An Exchange is a site where you exchange your local currency for Bitcoins (or other crypto currencies).
A FORK (hard or soft) creates a new currency with upgrades to the original. It is similar to a stock split, in that holders of the original currency are automatically awarded equal amounts of the new currency.
An ICO (Initial Coin Offering) is a hybrid of an IPO, Angel Investing and Online Fundraiser is allowing small businesses around the world to raise funds without red tape & expense of an IPO